Testing Hypotheses

Also called Test of Significance

Only reject or not reject, there's no accept hypotheses.

Step 1: construct null hypotheses, and alternative hypotheses

null hypotheses
null means have no value. We assume it right, and going to reject it if the data support this.
alternative hypotheses
results which we want

Step 2: in t-test example, to test difference between two means, calculate the difference, standardize it to 1 by dividing it by standard error. So the result t should be t-disruibuted. If the t is located very near the tails, probability very low, that is, not significance.

Step 3: based on step 2, you can calculate confidence interval, do a specific significance test, or compare with p-value. (the three are the same in essence)

See also:
t-test

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